By Ramesh Ponnuru
Ramesh Ponnuru and the National Review have graciously allowed us to reprint his article "Social Injustice," which discusses the inroads trial lawyers are making with the political right, through socially conservative populists among their midst. We've also been allowed to attach an exchange in the letters-to-the-editor section of the magazine, in response to the column (download PDF).
The website for the Center for a Just Society, a new social-conservative group in Washington, has a lot of the items you would expect to see: denunciations of embryonic-stem-cell research; calls for an end to the filibustering of Bush's judicial nominees. The quality of the writing at ajustsociety.org is a cut above what you would find from most social-conservative organizations, and the range of issues is slightly wider. The Center attempts to bring "Judeo-Christian perspectives" to bear on topics that social conservatives have traditionally ignored. Thus it makes a moral case for Social Security reform. What most sets the Center's website apart from the sites of other conservative organizations, however, is what it has to say about tort reform. Or, rather, "tort 'reform.'"
In one of the statements on its website, the Center writes: "[T]here is a widespread effort underway to take away our right to a trial by jury. Those pushing this wrong-headed agenda claim that it will reduce the costs of healthcare and eliminate 'frivolous lawsuits.' . . . [T]ruth be told, the agenda behind the agenda [emphasis in original] has less to do with lowering the cost of healthcare and eliminating frivolous suits and more to do with immunizing wrongdoers from the consequences of their behavior."
This perspective reflects the views of the Center's chairman, Ken Connor. He is best known as a social-conservative leader. He was president of the Family Research Council, and he represented Florida governor Jeb Bush in the Terri Schiavo case. (The Center was in the thick of the Schiavo fight as soon as it set up shop, back in March.) But he has also had a long career as a trial lawyer suing nursing homes for what he calls "elder abuse."
The Center is in its infancy. It does not even have an office yet. Its advocacy of tort reform has not received much attention. The most impact it has had came when Focus on the Family, James Dobson's much larger and more influential conservative organization, publicized its description of the Republicans' medical-liability reform bill as an attack on the sanctity of life. But the Center may represent an emerging trend. There are some signs that social conservatives and the trial bar may be making common causewhich means that on litigation reform, the social and economic Right may be headed for a split. Whether that split occurs will depend on whether the social Right can see through the misleading slogans of the trial bar.
ALLIANCES IN FLUX
In the weeks between Justice Sandra Day O'Connor's announcement that she will retire from the Supreme Court and President Bush's nomination of John Roberts to replace her, there were reports of tensions between Bush's social-conservative and business supporters. Social conservatives didn't want a new justice in O'Connor's mold. They were fond of originalist jurists such as federal appeals-court judge Michael Luttig. Business lobbies worried, however, that Luttig was less likely than O'Connor to impose limits on punitive damages in lawsuits against corporations.
Harry Reid, the leader of the Senate Democrats, seemed to pick up on this tension. He said that several Republican senators would make fine replacements for O'Connor: Mike Crapo of Idaho, Mike DeWine of Ohio, Lindsey Graham of South Carolina, and Mel Martinez of Florida. His list omitted two Republican senators who had more frequently been mentioned as possible nominees to the Court: Jon Kyl of Arizona and John Cornyn of Texas. When asked about the omission of Cornyn, Reid said that he had already listed his picks. All six of the senators have socially conservative voting records. Walter Olson, the author of several of the most important books making the case for tort reform, spotted the distinction among them: Kyl and Cornyn have taken the lead on tort reform, while the other four have often voted with the plaintiffs' bar against most of their Republican colleagues. Crapo, Graham, and Martinez are, indeed, former trial lawyers.
In the end, however, Bush ignored Reid's advice. By choosing Roberts, he was able to mollify both business and social conservatives. Neither constituency knows that he will vote with it, but each has some reason to think that he might. The conservative coalition did not split.
At least, it hasn't yet. But that list of senators who used to be trial lawyers suggests one of the reasons that tensions will persist: There are socially conservative trial lawyers. The profession abounds with politically talented, rich, and influential people. While conservatives have not tended to regard the courts as instruments of social changeas much of the tort bar reflexively doesthere are bound to be some outliers. With the Republicans in charge of Washington and threatening the livelihoods of trial lawyers, it stands to reason that the latter would, as the lobbyists say, "reach out" to the Republican party. Connor recently spoke at a convention of the Association of Trial Lawyers of America urging the group to do just that. He says he was received "extraordinarily well."
Connor argues that while some Republicansthe "bluebloods" at the "apex" of the partyhave an economic interest in fighting trial lawyers, the "blue collars" at the "base" of the party are against trial lawyers only because the trial lawyers have allied themselves with the Democrats. If the trial lawyers end that alliance, he thinks, common ground could be found.
THE MORALITY OF LAWSUITS
Connor's organization argues that the tort system is valuable because it holds corporate wrongdoers accountable. It thus affirms the value of responsibility and, when injuries or fatalities result from corporate misconduct, the sanctity of human life. In certain respects, this claim is obviously true. But tort reformers are not composed exclusively of corporate wrongdoers, their flacks, and their dupes. As Olson puts it, "Much of the popular success of the litigation-reform side has come precisely from people's feelings that the outcomes of litigation don't track our moral sentiments very closely, and seem to track them less well over time."
Take nursing-home litigation. Until 2001, Connor's native Florida had a "resident's rights" law that allowed plaintiffs to recover damages from nursing homes without proving negligence. Nursing homes were often sued over bedsoreseven though they are hard to avoid for invalid patients. Ted Frank, who runs the American Enterprise Institute's Liability Project, points out that "Christopher Reeve, who had the finest medical care money can buy, died from a bedsore infection." And the nursing homes faced a Catch-22: They were not allowed to restrain patients who suffered from dementia, but were liable if those patients hurt themselves in a fall. Frank concedes that some lawsuits involved "really substandard care," but says that too many attempted to "hold companies responsible for things they had nothing to do with."
The law forced many nursing-home companies into bankruptcy, causing a shortage. By 1998, one out of every four Medicaid dollars spent on nursing homes in the state was going to pay liability costs. Connor's partner, Jim Wilkes, the lead attorney on most of Connor's nursing-home cases, spent more than a million dollars trying to block limits on liability. The Florida chapter of AARP actually supported the 2001 reform, perhaps swayed by the thought that elderly Floridians needed nursing homes more than the trial lawyers needed the money.
Or take asbestos litigation, which has done more to reward wrongdoing than to punish it. Asbestos claims have soared in recent years even as the incidence of asbestos-related diseases has declined. Lester Brickman, a professor at the Cardozo School of Law, credibly alleges that the explanation is that 80 to 90 percent of recent claims are fraudulent. Lawyers have coached witnesses to make false testimony and get false diagnoses, and then sued companies that played the most minor of roles in the asbestos industry. Not all trial lawyers are, of course, guilty of these tactics. Many trial lawyers, especially those who represent clients whom asbestos actually made ill, are appalled by the false claims. But it is hard to avoid the conclusion that the system has strayed rather far from holding wrongdoers accountable.
The Center for a Just Society is certainly right to say that not everything that travels under the name of tort reform deserves support. It argues, correctly, that federal tort reform can trample on state prerogatives. If a state has lawsuit laws that lead doctors to leave it, it ought to be the responsibility of the state's voters and politicians to change those laws. On the other hand, frivolous product-liability lawsuits can't be avoided by skipping the border. No state can shield a drugmaker or medical-device manufacturer located in its jurisdiction from abusive lawsuits filed in other states. In such cases, it's up to the federal government to protect interstate commerce by restraining the states. The Republicans' medical-liability bill should be amended so that it touches only interstate commerce. But the trial lawyers, and the Center, oppose the whole thing.
LIFE AND LITIGATION
The Center opposes the bill on the theory that it is "pro-abortion" because it provides immunity to the makers of RU-486 (the "abortion cocktail"), and prescribing doctors, from lawsuits by the families of women who die as a result of the drug. But this immunity is partial. What the bill says is that if a product or treatment complies with federal regulations, the people who made the product or supervised the treatment can't be sued for punitive damages if something goes wrong. They can be sued for compensatory damages, including damages for causing pain and suffering. But if they're compliant with FDA regulations, for example, the courts shouldn't punish them. The makers of RU-486 already enjoy some legal immunities thanks to Bill Clinton. But even if they didn't, the Center's argument would be faulty. Just as conservatives would not favor raising corporate-tax rates in order to drive companies involved in abortion out of business, they should not oppose efforts to improve the legal environment for corporations because they might help companies involved in abortion.
John Edwards illustrates the bankruptcy of the "pro-life" case for pro-plaintiff medical-malpractice laws. Suing obstetricians for causing cerebral palsy by failing to do C-sections was one of his most profitable lines of litigation. He has boasted about how he swayed jurors by assuming the voice of an unborn child pleading for help. But the evidence strongly suggests that cerebral palsy is usually genetic in origin, and almost never the result of a botched delivery. (One piece of evidence: C-sections have grown more common over the last few decades, while the incidence of cerebral palsy has stayed the same.) Lawsuits, and the resulting malpractice-insurance premiums, have driven obstetricians away from some areas.
In a forthcoming paper for the Journal of Legal Studies, law professor Jonathan Klick and economist Thomas Stratmann provide reasons to believe that such lawsuits result in infant deaths. Specifically, they find that caps on punitive damages in medical-malpractice lawsuits bring infant-mortality rates down. More doctors practice in states that adopt them. The health benefits flow primarily to black infants in rural areas. Klick thinks that federal legislation might have a positive effect on infant mortality, too (although he is careful to note that he does not endorse the legislation). The study undermines the claim that medical-malpractice reform is anti-life.
When John Kerry picked Edwards as his running mate and Republicans attacked the latter for being a trial lawyer, Connor rushed to his defense. But if Connor is concerned about the bad name trial lawyers have in some circles, perhaps he should have blamed lawyers such as Edwards rather than their critics. Connor says, "Trial lawyers should be viewed as stewards of the civil justice system." They will not be viewed that way, however, if a sizable number of them are not acting as such.
The right to a jury trial, meanwhile, isn't nearly as threatened as the Centerand the tort barwould have you believe. There are, it is true, some proposals floating around to handle medical-malpractice cases through the kind of administrative compensation schemes that long ago took over workers' compensation. But legislated caps on damages aren't an affront to the jury system, any more than are statutes blocking juries in criminal trials from imposing life sentences for shoplifting (to borrow a comparison from Olson). The historical value of the jury was as a brake on the power of the courts. Their role has not been to enable the courts to take actions that the legislature refuses to authorize.
The issues involved in tort reform are complicated, and people can disagree about them in good faith. The Center for a Just Society might well lead social conservatives to make a contribution to this debate (among others). Connor says that the Center will come out for making the losing party pay for civil litigationa potentially far-reaching reform. If the Center does that, it will be hard for anyone to argue that it is merely a front for the trial lawyers.
But social conservatives ought to keep in mind that the current system features, and even encourages, all kinds of squalid behavior. Lawsuits are filed as fishing expeditions. Firms that have not done anything wrong are targeted because of their deep pockets. Simple fraud is more than occasionally perpetrated through the courts. All of these are forms of bearing false witness. And "Judeo-Christian perspectives" on that have not been positive.